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Empowering Women Entrepreneurs in Fragile Economies: The Significance of the Business Model Canvas



Bukavu, DRC, May 2020. Source Congo in Conversation


In the landscape of entrepreneurship, the Business Model Canvas (BMC) has emerged as a pivotal tool, offering entrepreneurs a structured framework to conceptualize, refine, and implement their business strategies. This article delves into the crucial role of the BMC in empowering women entrepreneurs, particularly in fragile economies. Beginning with an exploration of the BMC's utility in providing entrepreneurs with clarity, focus, and adaptability in defining their business models, the article transitions to a discussion on the unique challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in such contexts.

Drawing from primary sources including reports from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the article elucidates the multifaceted barriers hindering women entrepreneurs in fragile economies. These barriers encompass limited access to financial and educational resources, entrenched cultural and societal norms, and the absence of robust support networks. Through an analysis of case studies from countries like Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Yemen, the article underscores the complex interplay of these challenges and their impact on women's entrepreneurship.


Moreover, the article highlights the economic and social significance of empowering women entrepreneurs in fragile economies. It delves into the potential of women-led businesses to drive sustainable economic growth, alleviate poverty, and promote gender equality. Additionally, the article examines the broader societal benefits, including community development and social cohesion, stemming from the empowerment of women entrepreneurs.


In this context, the role of organizations such as the Coachability Foundation becomes pivotal. By providing training, mentorship, and access to resources, these organizations play a crucial role in equipping women entrepreneurs with the tools and support needed to succeed. Through a comprehensive review of literature and empirical evidence, the article underscores the imperative for stakeholders to support initiatives that empower women entrepreneurs in fragile economies.


Ultimately, the article calls for a concerted effort to address the structural barriers and systemic inequalities that impede the full participation of women in entrepreneurship. It advocates for policies and interventions aimed at creating an enabling environment that fosters the growth and success of women-led businesses. In doing so, the article envisions a future where women entrepreneurs are recognized as catalysts for positive change, driving economic development and social progress in fragile economies.


Keywords ; Women entrepreneurs, Business Model Canvas (BMC), Fragile economies, Gender equality, Empowerment, Economic development, Social impact, Entrepreneurship challenges, Access to resources, Support networks, Case studies, Women's empowerment, Sustainable development, Coachability Foundation, Stakeholder support




Empowering Women Entrepreneurs in Fragile Economies: The Significance of the Business Model Canvas


I. Introduction

 A. Overview of the importance of the Business Model Canvas (BMC) in entrepreneurship.

 B. Introduction to the specific challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in fragile economies.


II. Importance of the Business Model Canvas

A. Clarity and focus: How the BMC helps entrepreneurs define their business model with clarity and focus.

B. Iterative approach: Discussing how the BMC facilitates experimentation and adaptation in the entrepreneurial journey.

C. Alignment and communication: Exploring how the BMC serves as a common language for stakeholders.

D. Risk mitigation: Illustrating how the BMC helps identify and mitigate risks in the business model.

E. Resource allocation: Highlighting the role of the BMC in optimising resource allocation for maximum efficiency.

F. Alternatives to the BCM. 


III. Challenges Faced by Women Entrepreneurs in Fragile Economies

A. Limited access to resources: Discussing the scarcity of financial and educational resources for women entrepreneurs.

B. Cultural and societal barriers: Exploring how gender norms and discrimination hinder women's entrepreneurial endeavours.

C. Lack of support networks: Discussing the absence of mentorship and networking opportunities for women in fragile economies. 


IV. Importance of Creating a Business Model for Women Entrepreneurs in Fragile Economies

A. Economic empowerment: Exploring how a robust business model can empower women economically and contribute to poverty alleviation.

B. Social impact: Discussing the broader societal benefits of supporting women entrepreneurs, including gender equality and community development.

C. Sustainable development: Highlighting the role of women entrepreneurs in driving sustainable economic growth and development in fragile economies.

D. Examples of Specific Countries:

  1. Afghanistan: Discussing the challenges and opportunities for women entrepreneurs in post-conflict Afghanistan.

  2. Democratic Republic of Congo: Exploring the impact of conflict and instability on women's entrepreneurship in the DRC.

  3. Yemen: Discussing the unique challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in Yemen's fragile economy.


V. The Role of Coachability Foundation in Empowering Women Entrepreneurs 


VI. Conclusion

A. Recap of the importance of the Business Model Canvas in empowering women entrepreneurs in fragile economies.

B. Call to action: Encouraging stakeholders to support initiatives like Coachability Foundation in their efforts to empower women entrepreneurs.

C. Hope for the future: Expressing optimism about the potential for women entrepreneurs to drive positive change and economic growth in fragile economies.


VII. ANNEXE 1.

The Vital Role of the Business Model Canvas in Entrepreneurial Ventures



I. Introduction


 A. Overview of the importance of the Business Model Canvas (BMC) in entrepreneurship.

The significance of the Business Model Canvas (BMC) in entrepreneurship cannot be overstated. Developed by Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur, the BMC is a visual tool that enables entrepreneurs to articulate and refine their business models in a structured and comprehensive manner (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010). By providing a holistic view of the key components of a business, including customer segments, value proposition, revenue streams, and cost structure, the BMC facilitates strategic decision-making and fosters innovation (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010). Moreover, its user-friendly format allows entrepreneurs to quickly iterate and adapt their business models in response to changing market conditions and customer feedback (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010).

 The importance of the BMC lies in its ability to bring clarity and focus to the entrepreneurial process, helping entrepreneurs identify opportunities, mitigate risks, and optimize resource allocation (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010). By providing a common language for stakeholders and enabling effective communication and alignment within entrepreneurial teams, the BMC enhances collaboration and synergy, ultimately increasing the likelihood of entrepreneurial success (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010).

 As we delve into the specific context of empowering women entrepreneurs in fragile economies, it becomes evident that the BMC holds even greater significance. In such environments, where resources are scarce, and challenges abound, women entrepreneurs face unique obstacles that necessitate innovative solutions and strategic thinking. The BMC serves as a powerful tool to help women entrepreneurs in fragile economies overcome these challenges, by providing a structured framework to conceptualize, refine, and execute their business ideas effectively.


B. Introduction to the specific challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in fragile economies.

 Women entrepreneurs in fragile economies encounter a myriad of challenges that hinder their ability to thrive in the business landscape. These challenges are rooted in socio-economic, cultural, and institutional factors, which exacerbate the already precarious conditions prevalent in fragile economies. One of the primary obstacles faced by women entrepreneurs is the limited access to financial resources and formal banking services. According to a report by the World Bank (2019), women in fragile and conflict-affected states are 16% less likely than men to have a bank account, restricting their access to capital and hindering their ability to invest in their businesses.

 Additionally, women entrepreneurs in fragile economies often face cultural and societal barriers that impede their entrepreneurial endeavours. Gender norms and stereotypes prevalent in these societies often relegate women to traditional roles as caregivers and homemakers, limiting their opportunities for economic participation and entrepreneurship (World Bank, 2019). Furthermore, institutional barriers, such as discriminatory laws and regulations, pose additional challenges for women entrepreneurs, restricting their access to markets, property rights, and legal protections (World Bank, 2019).

 Moreover, the lack of support networks and mentorship opportunities further compounds the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in fragile economies. Without access to mentorship and networking opportunities, women entrepreneurs struggle to acquire the knowledge, skills, and connections necessary to succeed in the business world (World Bank, 2019). As a result, many women entrepreneurs in fragile economies operate in isolation, lacking the support and guidance needed to navigate the complexities of entrepreneurship.

 In light of these challenges, it is imperative to recognize the unique needs and vulnerabilities of women entrepreneurs in fragile economies and develop targeted interventions to support their economic empowerment and entrepreneurial aspirations. By addressing the structural barriers and inequities that hinder women's entrepreneurship, policymakers, development practitioners, and stakeholders can create an enabling environment that fosters women's economic participation and unlocks their full potential as drivers of sustainable development and inclusive growth.


II. Importance of the Business Model Canvas


 A. Clarity and focus: How the BMC helps entrepreneurs define their business model with clarity and focus.

The Business Model Canvas (BMC) serves as a fundamental tool for entrepreneurs, offering a structured approach to defining and refining their business models with clarity and focus. Developed by Osterwalder and Pigneur in their seminal work "Business Model Generation" (2010), the BMC provides a visual representation of the key components of a business, including customer segments, value propositions, channels, revenue streams, and more.

Through its nine building blocks, the BMC prompts entrepreneurs to systematically analyze and articulate each aspect of their business model. By doing so, entrepreneurs gain a clearer understanding of how their business will create, deliver, and capture value in the market. This process fosters clarity by breaking down complex concepts into manageable components, allowing entrepreneurs to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats more effectively.

Moreover, the BMC helps entrepreneurs maintain focus by encouraging them to prioritize critical elements of their business model. By providing a structured framework, the BMC guides entrepreneurs in allocating resources and efforts toward areas that are essential for success. This focused approach enables entrepreneurs to concentrate on building competitive advantages and delivering value to customers, ultimately enhancing their chances of sustainable growth and profitability.

Overall, the BMC serves as a powerful tool for entrepreneurs to define their business models with clarity and focus. By providing a structured framework and guiding entrepreneurs through the process of strategic analysis and decision-making, the BMC empowers entrepreneurs to develop robust and coherent business models that align with their vision and objectives.


 B. Iterative approach: Discussing how the BMC facilitates experimentation and adaptation in the entrepreneurial journey.

The Business Model Canvas (BMC) is not only a static tool for initial business planning but also a dynamic framework that supports an iterative approach to entrepreneurship. As highlighted by Osterwalder and Pigneur in "Business Model Generation" (2010), the BMC encourages entrepreneurs to embrace experimentation and adaptation throughout their entrepreneurial journey.

The BMC's visual format and modular structure make it well-suited for experimentation. Entrepreneurs can easily manipulate and adjust individual building blocks of the canvas to explore different business model configurations and strategies. This flexibility allows entrepreneurs to test hypotheses, validate assumptions, and iterate on their business models in response to feedback from customers, stakeholders, and market dynamics.

Moreover, the BMC promotes a continuous learning process by enabling entrepreneurs to document and reflect on their findings as they progress. By visually representing their business models on the canvas, entrepreneurs can easily identify areas of improvement and iterate on their ideas based on new insights and information.

Additionally, the BMC facilitates adaptation by encouraging entrepreneurs to pivot their business models in response to changing market conditions or emerging opportunities. Whether it's shifting focus to a new customer segment, exploring alternative revenue streams, or forming strategic partnerships, entrepreneurs can use the BMC to assess the impact of potential changes and make informed decisions about the direction of their ventures.

Overall, the BMC serves as a catalyst for innovation and growth by providing entrepreneurs with a framework for iterative experimentation and adaptation. By embracing the iterative approach facilitated by the BMC, entrepreneurs can navigate the uncertainties of entrepreneurship more effectively and increase their chances of success in the dynamic business landscape.


 C. Alignment and communication: Exploring how the BMC serves as a common language for stakeholders.

The Business Model Canvas (BMC) not only aids entrepreneurs in defining and refining their business models but also serves as a powerful tool for alignment and communication among stakeholders. Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) elaborate on this aspect in "Business Model Generation," highlighting how the BMC provides a common language that enables stakeholders to understand and engage with the business model effectively.

The visual nature of the BMC makes it accessible and understandable to a wide range of stakeholders, including team members, investors, partners, and customers. Each building block of the canvas represents a critical aspect of the business model, such as customer segments, value propositions, and revenue streams, making it easy for stakeholders to grasp the essential elements of the venture at a glance.

Moreover, the BMC facilitates alignment by encouraging stakeholders to collaborate and contribute to the development and refinement of the business model. By visualizing the entire business model on a single canvas, stakeholders can identify areas of agreement and disagreement, enabling constructive discussions and consensus-building around key strategic decisions.

Furthermore, the BMC serves as a communication tool that enables entrepreneurs to effectively convey their vision and strategy to stakeholders. Whether it's pitching to investors, presenting to potential partners, or engaging with customers, entrepreneurs can use the BMC to articulate their value proposition and business model in a clear and compelling manner.

Overall, the BMC serves as a common language that fosters alignment and communication among stakeholders, enabling them to collaborate effectively in the pursuit of shared goals and objectives.


 D. Risk mitigation: Illustrating how the BMC helps identify and mitigate risks in the business model.

The Business Model Canvas (BMC) serves as a valuable tool for entrepreneurs in identifying and mitigating risks inherent in their business models. Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) emphasize this aspect in "Business Model Generation," explaining how the BMC prompts entrepreneurs to systematically analyze each component of their business model and assess associated risks.

One of the key features of the BMC is its ability to provide a holistic view of the business model, allowing entrepreneurs to identify potential vulnerabilities and areas of uncertainty. By visualizing the interrelationships between different elements such as customer segments, value propositions, and revenue streams, entrepreneurs can pinpoint areas where risks may arise and develop strategies to mitigate them.

Moreover, the BMC encourages entrepreneurs to conduct scenario analysis and sensitivity testing to assess the impact of various external factors on their business model. By considering different scenarios, such as changes in market demand, shifts in competitive landscape, or disruptions in supply chain, entrepreneurs can anticipate potential risks and develop contingency plans to mitigate their impact.

Additionally, the BMC facilitates risk mitigation by promoting a structured approach to decision-making and resource allocation. By systematically evaluating the trade-offs between different elements of the business model, entrepreneurs can make informed decisions about resource allocation and risk management. For example, entrepreneurs may choose to diversify revenue streams or invest in building resilient supply chains to mitigate risks associated with dependence on a single market or supplier.

Overall, the BMC serves as a powerful tool for entrepreneurs to identify and mitigate risks in their business models. By providing a structured framework for risk assessment and decision-making, the BMC empowers entrepreneurs to proactively manage risks and increase the resilience of their ventures in the face of uncertainty.


E. Resource allocation: Highlighting the role of the BMC in optimizing resource allocation for maximum efficiency.

The Business Model Canvas (BMC) serves as a powerful tool for entrepreneurs to optimize resource allocation and maximize efficiency in their ventures. As outlined by Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) in "Business Model Generation," the BMC provides entrepreneurs with a structured framework to systematically analyze and allocate resources based on the key components of their business model.

One of the key features of the BMC is its ability to help entrepreneurs identify and prioritize the most critical elements of their business model. By visualizing components such as key activities, key resources, and cost structure, entrepreneurs can gain insights into where resources should be allocated to create the most value for their venture. This enables entrepreneurs to focus their resources on areas that are essential for delivering their value proposition and achieving strategic objectives.

Moreover, the BMC facilitates informed decision-making around resource allocation by providing a clear understanding of the trade-offs between different elements of the business model. Entrepreneurs can use the BMC to evaluate the impact of resource allocation decisions on other parts of the business model and identify opportunities to optimize efficiency. For example, entrepreneurs may choose to invest in key resources that drive value creation while minimizing costs in non-essential areas.

Furthermore, the BMC promotes flexibility in resource allocation by enabling entrepreneurs to quickly iterate and adapt their business models in response to changing market conditions. Entrepreneurs can use the BMC to assess the impact of resource allocation decisions on the overall viability and scalability of their ventures, allowing them to adjust their strategies as needed to optimize resource allocation and maximize efficiency.

Overall, the BMC serves as a valuable tool for entrepreneurs to optimize resource allocation and maximize efficiency in their ventures. By providing a structured framework for strategic analysis and decision-making, the BMC empowers entrepreneurs to make informed choices about how to allocate resources effectively to drive sustainable growth and success.


F. Alternatives to the BMC (alternative tools)

While the Business Model Canvas (BMC) is a widely-used and highly effective tool for business model innovation, there are alternative frameworks and tools available for entrepreneurs seeking to define and refine their business models. These alternatives offer unique approaches and perspectives that may be better suited to specific contexts or preferences. Here are a few notable alternatives:

1. Lean Canvas: Developed by Ash Maurya, the Lean Canvas is a one-page business modeling tool that is particularly well-suited for startups and early-stage ventures. It focuses on key elements such as problem-solution fit, unique value proposition, and channels to reach customers, providing a simplified and actionable framework for entrepreneurs to validate their business ideas and iterate on their business models.

2. Value Proposition Canvas: Also developed by Alexander Osterwalder, the Value Proposition Canvas (VPC) is a companion tool to the BMC that focuses specifically on understanding customer needs and designing value propositions to address them. It helps entrepreneurs clarify the value they offer to customers and identify opportunities for differentiation and innovation in their products or services.

3. Business Model You: Based on the principles of the BMC, Business Model You is a personal development tool designed to help individuals understand and optimize their own career and professional development paths. It applies the same building blocks used in the BMC to analyze and visualize an individual's skills, passions, and goals, enabling them to identify opportunities for growth and fulfillment in their careers.

4. Design Thinking: While not specifically a business modeling tool, Design Thinking is a human-centered approach to innovation that can complement the BMC by providing insights into customer needs and preferences. By empathizing with users, defining problems, ideating solutions, prototyping, and testing, entrepreneurs can uncover new opportunities and develop innovative business models that resonate with customers.

5. SWOT Analysis: SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) Analysis is a simple yet powerful tool for assessing the internal and external factors that may impact a business. While it does not provide a structured framework like the BMC, SWOT Analysis can help entrepreneurs identify areas of competitive advantage, areas for improvement, and potential risks or challenges to be addressed in their business models.

These alternative tools offer entrepreneurs a range of options for defining and refining their business models, each with its own strengths and limitations. Depending on the specific needs and preferences of the entrepreneur, selecting the most appropriate tool or combination of tools can help optimize the process of business model innovation and enhance the likelihood of success.

Source: No specific source is cited as the alternatives mentioned are well-known frameworks developed by various authors and practitioners in the field of entrepreneurship and business model innovation. However, interested readers can refer to relevant literature and resources specific to each alternative tool mentioned for further information.


III. Challenges Faced by Women Entrepreneurs in Fragile Economies


A. Limited access to resources: Discussing the scarcity of financial and educational resources for women entrepreneurs.

Women entrepreneurs in fragile economies face significant challenges due to the limited access to financial and educational resources necessary for business success. According to the World Bank (2019), women in these contexts often encounter obstacles when attempting to access formal financial institutions, such as banks or microfinance institutions. Factors such as lack of collateral or credit history may prevent them from securing loans or investment capital needed to start or expand their businesses. Additionally, gender biases within financial systems may result in higher interest rates and stricter lending criteria for women entrepreneurs, further limiting their access to financing.

Moreover, educational opportunities for women entrepreneurs in fragile economies are often scarce or inadequate. The World Bank (2019) emphasizes the critical role of education and vocational training in empowering women entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and knowledge to succeed in business. However, many women in fragile contexts lack access to quality education and training programs that could equip them with essential entrepreneurial competencies. Without access to education and training, women may struggle to develop the skills and confidence needed to effectively manage their businesses and navigate the challenges of entrepreneurship.

The scarcity of financial and educational resources poses significant barriers to the success and growth of women-owned enterprises in fragile economies. Addressing these challenges requires concerted efforts to improve access to financial services, promote gender-inclusive education and training initiatives, and create an enabling environment that supports women's entrepreneurship.


B. Cultural and societal barriers: Exploring how gender norms and discrimination hinder women's entrepreneurial endeavours.

Women entrepreneurs in fragile economies often encounter formidable cultural and societal barriers that impede their entrepreneurial aspirations. Gender norms and discriminatory practices deeply entrenched within these societies create obstacles that hinder women's access to opportunities and resources, stifling their entrepreneurial endeavours.

According to the World Bank (2019), gender norms dictate traditional roles and expectations for women, relegating them primarily to domestic responsibilities and caretaking duties. Consequently, women may face limited support and encouragement to pursue entrepreneurship, as societal expectations prioritise their roles within the household. Moreover, prevailing stereotypes may undermine women's credibility and competence as entrepreneurs, perpetuating the misconception that business ownership is predominantly a male domain.

Discriminatory practices further compound the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in fragile economies. Institutional barriers, such as discriminatory laws and regulations, may restrict women's access to markets, property rights, and legal protections, thereby limiting their ability to operate businesses on an equal footing with men. Additionally, cultural biases within financial institutions and business networks may marginalised women entrepreneurs, hampering their access to financing, markets, and mentorship opportunities.

The pervasive influence of gender norms and discrimination poses significant obstacles to women's entrepreneurial endeavours in fragile economies. Addressing these cultural and societal barriers requires multifaceted approaches that challenge entrenched gender stereotypes, promote gender equality, and create an enabling environment supportive of women's entrepreneurship.


C. Lack of support networks: Discussing the absence of mentorship and networking opportunities for women in fragile economies.

Women entrepreneurs in fragile economies often face a notable absence of support networks, including mentorship and networking opportunities, which are essential for their entrepreneurial success. The World Bank (2019) highlights that these networks play a crucial role in providing guidance, resources, and connections necessary for navigating the challenges of entrepreneurship.

Mentorship is particularly valuable for women entrepreneurs as it offers guidance, advice, and practical insights from experienced professionals who have traversed similar challenges. However, in fragile economies, women may encounter limited access to formal mentorship programs, as well as gender biases and cultural barriers that hinder their participation. Without access to mentorship, women entrepreneurs may miss out on valuable knowledge and support crucial for overcoming obstacles and growing their businesses.

Networking is another critical component of entrepreneurial success, enabling entrepreneurs to connect with peers, potential collaborators, investors, and customers. Yet, in fragile economies, women entrepreneurs may face barriers to building networks due to social norms that restrict their mobility and participation in business-related activities. Additionally, women may experience exclusionary practices within existing networks, limiting their access to valuable opportunities and resources.

The absence of support networks for women entrepreneurs in fragile economies hampers their ability to overcome challenges, access opportunities, and achieve their full potential. Addressing this issue requires concerted efforts to establish and strengthen mentorship and networking programs tailored to the needs of women entrepreneurs. By providing women with access to supportive networks, societies can empower them to thrive as entrepreneurs, driving economic growth and prosperity in fragile economies. by Coachability Foundation


IV. Importance of Creating a Business Model for Women Entrepreneurs in Fragile Economies

A. Economic empowerment: Exploring how a robust business model can empower women economically and contribute to poverty alleviation.

A robust business model tailored to the needs and capabilities of women entrepreneurs in fragile economies can serve as a powerful tool for economic empowerment and poverty alleviation. According to the World Bank (2019), such a business model enables women to generate income, build assets, and access opportunities critical for breaking the cycle of poverty and improving livelihoods.

Firstly, a robust business model facilitates income generation for women entrepreneurs, allowing them to create economic opportunities for themselves and their communities. By identifying viable market opportunities and addressing unmet needs, women entrepreneurs can establish businesses that generate sustainable revenue streams, thereby increasing household incomes and contributing to local economic development. This economic activity not only lifts women out of poverty but also stimulates growth in the broader economy, creating employment opportunities and fostering entrepreneurship ecosystem development.

Secondly, a robust business model enables women entrepreneurs to build assets and accumulate wealth over time. Through successful business ventures, women can acquire tangible assets such as property, equipment, and inventory, as well as intangible assets such as brand reputation and intellectual property. These assets serve as a form of economic security and resilience, protecting women and their families from financial shocks and vulnerabilities. Moreover, asset accumulation enables women to invest in education, healthcare, and other essential services, further enhancing their well-being and prosperity.

Additionally, a robust business model empowers women economically by providing them with decision-making authority and control over their financial resources. As business owners, women have the autonomy to make strategic decisions about their enterprises, including pricing, production, and investment. This autonomy not only enhances women's self-confidence and agency but also enables them to assert their economic independence and challenge traditional gender roles and norms. By empowering women as economic agents, a robust business model contributes to gender equality and social inclusion, promoting sustainable development and poverty alleviation in fragile economies.

In summary, a robust business model tailored to the needs of women entrepreneurs in fragile economies can serve as a catalyst for economic empowerment and poverty alleviation. By providing women with the tools, resources, and opportunities to succeed in business, societies can unleash their entrepreneurial potential and harness the transformative power of women's entrepreneurship for sustainable development.


B. Social impact: Discussing the broader societal benefits of supporting women entrepreneurs, including gender equality and community development.

Supporting women entrepreneurs in fragile economies yields significant societal benefits beyond individual economic empowerment. According to research conducted by the World Bank (2019), UN Women (2019), and reports from organizations such as the Gates Foundation and OECD, such support plays a crucial role in advancing gender equality and fostering community development.

Empowering women entrepreneurs contributes to gender equality by challenging entrenched gender norms and promoting women's economic participation. In many fragile economies, women face systemic barriers to entrepreneurship, including limited access to education, financial resources, and business networks. By providing women with the support, resources, and opportunities to start and grow their businesses, societies can dismantle these barriers and create a more inclusive entrepreneurial ecosystem. Moreover, women entrepreneurs serve as role models and mentors for future generations of women, inspiring them to pursue their entrepreneurial aspirations and challenging gender stereotypes.

Furthermore, supporting women entrepreneurs leads to positive spillover effects that benefit entire communities. Women entrepreneurs often prioritize investments in education, healthcare, and social services, contributing to improved well-being and quality of life for themselves and their families. Additionally, women-owned businesses create employment opportunities, stimulate local economic development, and foster innovation and creativity in the marketplace. By promoting women's entrepreneurship, societies can harness the full potential of women as drivers of social progress and economic growth, leading to more resilient and prosperous communities.

Additionally, women entrepreneurs are uniquely positioned to address social and environmental challenges facing their communities. Many women entrepreneurs in fragile economies operate businesses with a strong social or environmental mission, such as providing access to clean energy, improving healthcare services, or promoting sustainable agriculture. By aligning their businesses with social and environmental goals, women entrepreneurs contribute to positive change and sustainable development in their communities, leaving a lasting legacy for future generations.

In summary, supporting women entrepreneurs in fragile economies yields far-reaching social benefits that extend beyond individual businesses. By promoting gender equality, fostering community development, and addressing social and environmental challenges, women entrepreneurs play a critical role in building more inclusive, resilient, and sustainable societies.


C. Sustainable development: Highlighting the role of women entrepreneurs in driving sustainable economic growth and development in fragile economies.

Women entrepreneurs play a crucial role in driving sustainable economic growth and development in fragile economies. Research from the World Bank (2019), UN Women (2019), and reports from organizations such as the Gates Foundation and OECD emphasize the significant contributions of women entrepreneurs to sustainable development.

Firstly, women entrepreneurs contribute to economic growth by creating jobs, generating income, and stimulating local economic activity. According to the World Bank (2019), women-owned businesses are significant contributors to employment creation, particularly in sectors such as agriculture, retail, and services. By providing opportunities for entrepreneurship, women contribute to the diversification of the economy and the expansion of the private sector, fostering resilience against economic shocks and vulnerabilities.

Moreover, women entrepreneurs often prioritize investments in education, healthcare, and social services, contributing to improved well-being and quality of life for themselves and their communities. UN Women (2019) highlights the role of women entrepreneurs in promoting social and environmental sustainability through businesses that address pressing social challenges, such as access to clean energy, healthcare, and education. By aligning their businesses with social and environmental goals, women entrepreneurs contribute to positive change and sustainable development in their communities.

Additionally, women entrepreneurs are agents of innovation and change, driving entrepreneurship ecosystem development and fostering a culture of entrepreneurship in fragile economies. Reports from the Gates Foundation and OECD emphasize the importance of supporting women entrepreneurs in accessing finance, markets, and business networks to unlock their full potential as drivers of innovation and economic growth. By promoting an enabling environment for women's entrepreneurship, governments, policymakers, and development practitioners can harness the creativity, resilience, and ingenuity of women entrepreneurs to address pressing development challenges and build more sustainable economies.

Women entrepreneurs are key actors in driving sustainable economic growth and development in fragile economies. By creating jobs, investing in social and environmental sustainability, and fostering innovation and entrepreneurship, women entrepreneurs contribute to building more inclusive, resilient, and sustainable societies.


D. Examples of Specific Countries:

  1. Afghanistan: Discussing the challenges and opportunities for women entrepreneurs in post-conflict Afghanistan.

In post-conflict Afghanistan (2020), women entrepreneurs face a unique set of challenges and opportunities as they navigate the complex socio-economic landscape shaped by decades of conflict and instability. According to reports from organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank, Afghan women entrepreneurs encounter significant barriers to business ownership and economic participation, yet they also demonstrate resilience and entrepreneurial spirit amidst adversity.


Challenges:

a. Societal and cultural barriers: Deeply entrenched gender norms and traditional roles limit women's mobility and decision-making authority, restricting their ability to engage in entrepreneurial activities. Cultural stigmas surrounding women's participation in public life and the workforce further exacerbate the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs.

b. Access to finance: Limited access to formal financial services, including banking and microfinance, hinders women entrepreneurs' ability to start and grow their businesses. Discriminatory lending practices, coupled with stringent collateral requirements, make it challenging for women to access capital to invest in their ventures.

c. Education and skills development: Despite notable improvements in recent years, access to quality education and vocational training remains limited for many Afghan women. The lack of education and skills development opportunities constrains women's ability to acquire the necessary knowledge and competencies to succeed as entrepreneurs.


Photo Credit: UNDP Afghanistan


Opportunities:

a. Emerging support networks: Initiatives led by government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and international development organizations aim to support women entrepreneurs in Afghanistan by providing training, mentorship, and access to financial resources. These support networks offer valuable opportunities for women to overcome barriers and build successful businesses.

b. Growing market opportunities: Afghanistan's evolving economy presents emerging market opportunities in sectors such as agriculture, textiles, and handicrafts, where women entrepreneurs can leverage their skills and expertise to create innovative products and services. Additionally, increasing international interest in Afghan goods and products offers potential avenues for market expansion and export.

c. Policy reforms: Efforts to promote women's economic empowerment and entrepreneurship are gaining momentum in Afghanistan, with policymakers recognizing the importance of gender-inclusive policies and legal frameworks. Policy reforms aimed at addressing gender disparities in access to finance, property rights, and business registration can create an enabling environment for women entrepreneurs to thrive.

While women entrepreneurs in post-conflict Afghanistan face formidable challenges, they also possess resilience, creativity, and determination to overcome obstacles and seize opportunities for economic empowerment. By addressing structural barriers, promoting supportive policies, and fostering an enabling environment for entrepreneurship, Afghanistan can unlock the full potential of women entrepreneurs as catalysts for sustainable development and peacebuilding.


2. Democratic Republic of Congo: Exploring the impact of conflict and instability on women's entrepreneurship in the DRC.

In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in 2020, women entrepreneurs grapple with the profound effects of conflict and instability on their businesses and livelihoods. Despite the country's vast natural resources and entrepreneurial potential, ongoing conflicts, political instability, and gender-based violence create formidable barriers for women seeking to engage in entrepreneurship.


Challenges:

a. Conflict-induced displacement: Decades of armed conflict and internal displacement have disrupted economic activities and shattered communities in the DRC. Women, particularly those living in conflict-affected regions, face heightened risks of violence, displacement, and loss of property, making it exceedingly difficult to establish and sustain businesses.

b. Limited access to resources: Women entrepreneurs in the DRC confront significant barriers to accessing financial capital, markets, and business support services. Discriminatory practices within financial institutions, coupled with the absence of formal banking infrastructure in many areas, restrict women's ability to obtain loans or investment capital to start or expand their businesses.

c. Gender-based violence: The prevalence of gender-based violence, including sexual assault and exploitation, poses a significant threat to women's physical safety and emotional well-being. In addition to the immediate trauma inflicted, such violence creates long-term barriers to entrepreneurship by undermining women's confidence, mobility, and social networks.


Opportunities:

a. Resilience and innovation: Despite the myriad challenges they face, women entrepreneurs in the DRC demonstrate remarkable resilience and creativity in adapting to adverse conditions. Many women turn to informal sector activities, such as small-scale trading or agricultural production, to generate income and support their families amidst instability.

b. Support from civil society and international organizations: Civil society organizations and international development agencies play a vital role in providing support and resources to women entrepreneurs in the DRC. Initiatives focusing on skills training, microfinance, and business development offer opportunities for women to enhance their entrepreneurial capabilities and access markets.

c. Peacebuilding and reconciliation efforts: Sustainable peace and stability are fundamental prerequisites for women's entrepreneurship to thrive in the DRC. Efforts to address the root causes of conflict, promote dialogue, and strengthen governance and rule of law can create an enabling environment for women to engage in business activities and contribute to economic recovery and development.

The impact of conflict and instability on women's entrepreneurship in the DRC is profound, yet women continue to demonstrate resilience and ingenuity in the face of adversity. By addressing the structural barriers and investing in women's economic empowerment, the DRC can unlock the full potential of women entrepreneurs as drivers of sustainable development and peacebuilding.


 3. Yemen: Discussing the unique challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in Yemen's fragile economy.


In Yemen's fragile economy, women entrepreneurs in 2020 confront a myriad of unique challenges stemming from prolonged conflict, political instability, and socio-cultural norms. Despite the significant contributions women make to the economy, their participation in entrepreneurship is hindered by various barriers that limit their opportunities for economic empowerment and growth.

Challenges:

a. Conflict-induced economic devastation: Yemen's protracted conflict has inflicted severe damage on the country's economy, leading to widespread poverty, unemployment, and food insecurity. The collapse of infrastructure, disruption of supply chains, and depreciation of the national currency have created immense challenges for businesses, particularly those owned and operated by women.

b. Limited access to resources: Women entrepreneurs in Yemen face significant barriers to accessing financial capital, markets, and business support services. Structural constraints within the financial sector, including discriminatory lending practices and limited access to credit, impede women's ability to secure financing for their ventures. Additionally, the absence of formal business networks and support mechanisms further constrains women's entrepreneurial activities.

c. Socio-cultural constraints: Yemen's patriarchal society imposes rigid gender roles and norms that restrict women's mobility, autonomy, and participation in public life. Cultural attitudes towards women's education, employment, and entrepreneurship perpetuate inequalities and limit women's opportunities for economic empowerment. Moreover, prevalent gender-based violence and discriminatory practices exacerbate the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs, undermining their confidence and security.

UNDP Yemen / 2023


Opportunities:

a. Resilience and adaptability: Despite the formidable challenges they face, women entrepreneurs in Yemen demonstrate remarkable resilience and adaptability in navigating the complexities of the business environment. Many women engage in informal sector activities, such as small-scale trading or home-based businesses, to generate income and support their families amidst adversity.

b. Support from humanitarian and development agencies: Humanitarian and development organizations play a crucial role in providing support and resources to women entrepreneurs in Yemen. Initiatives focusing on skills training, microfinance, and business development offer opportunities for women to enhance their entrepreneurial capabilities and access markets, contributing to their economic empowerment and resilience.

c. Advocacy and policy interventions: Efforts to address the structural barriers hindering women's entrepreneurship in Yemen require comprehensive policy interventions and advocacy initiatives. By promoting gender-inclusive policies, enhancing access to financial services, and fostering an enabling environment for entrepreneurship, policymakers and stakeholders can create opportunities for women to thrive as entrepreneurs and contribute to economic recovery and development in Yemen.

The unique challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in Yemen's fragile economy necessitate targeted interventions and support mechanisms to unlock their full potential as drivers of economic growth and resilience. By addressing the structural barriers and promoting gender-inclusive policies, Yemen can harness the entrepreneurial spirit and creativity of women to build a more prosperous and equitable society.


V. The Role of Coachability Foundation in Empowering Women Entrepreneurs

Support for women entrepreneurs: Discussing the programs and initiatives offered by Coachability Foundation to support women entrepreneurs in fragile economies.

The Coachability Foundation stands as a beacon of empowerment for women entrepreneurs globally, particularly those operating in fragile economies where the challenges of entrepreneurship are magnified. Recognizing the unique barriers faced by women in these contexts, the foundation has developed a range of tailored programs and initiatives aimed at providing holistic support to women entrepreneurs.

Through its entrepreneurship training programs, the Coachability Foundation equips women with the essential skills and knowledge needed to navigate the complexities of starting and growing a business in fragile economies. These programs cover various aspects of entrepreneurship, including business planning, financial management, marketing strategies, and access to markets. By imparting practical skills and insights, the foundation empowers women to overcome obstacles and seize opportunities for success.

Moreover, the Coachability Foundation places a strong emphasis on mentorship as a key driver of women's entrepreneurial success. Through mentorship programs, women entrepreneurs are paired with experienced business leaders and industry professionals who provide guidance, advice, and support tailored to their specific needs and challenges. This mentorship not only enhances women's business acumen but also fosters confidence, resilience, and a sense of community among participants.

Access to resources: Exploring how Coachability Foundation provides women entrepreneurs with access to financial and educational resources.

In addition to training and mentorship, the Coachability Foundation facilitates access to vital resources, including financial capital and educational opportunities, to empower women entrepreneurs in fragile economies. Recognizing the critical role that access to finance plays in business growth and sustainability, the foundation provides women with support in securing loans, grants, and other forms of funding to start or expand their ventures. By partnering with financial institutions, impact investors, and philanthropic organizations, the foundation helps women entrepreneurs overcome barriers to accessing capital and unlock their full potential.

Furthermore, the Coachability Foundation offers educational resources and opportunities tailored to the needs of women entrepreneurs, including workshops, webinars, and online courses covering topics such as financial literacy, business management, and digital skills. By providing accessible and relevant educational content, the foundation enables women to build their capacity, stay informed about industry trends, and adapt to changing market dynamics.

The Coachability Foundation plays a vital role in empowering women entrepreneurs in fragile economies by providing comprehensive support through training, mentorship, and access to resources. By equipping women with the skills, knowledge, and networks needed to succeed in entrepreneurship, the foundation catalyzes economic empowerment, fosters resilience, and drives positive change in communities around the world.

VI. Conclusion

A. Recap of the importance of the Business Model Canvas in empowering women entrepreneurs in fragile economies.

In conclusion, the Business Model Canvas (BMC) emerges as a powerful tool for empowering women entrepreneurs in fragile economies, offering a structured framework to define, refine, and communicate their business models effectively. Throughout this article, we have explored how the BMC provides women entrepreneurs with clarity, focus, and strategic direction, enabling them to navigate the complexities of entrepreneurship and overcome barriers to success.

The BMC serves as a guiding compass for women entrepreneurs, helping them articulate their value proposition, identify key customers, and design revenue streams that align with market needs and opportunities. By fostering clarity and focus, the BMC enables women entrepreneurs to make informed decisions, allocate resources efficiently, and adapt their business models to changing circumstances, thereby increasing their chances of success in fragile economies.

Moreover, the iterative nature of the BMC facilitates experimentation and adaptation, allowing women entrepreneurs to test assumptions, pivot strategies, and refine their business models based on real-world feedback and insights. This iterative approach not only enhances the resilience of women entrepreneurs but also fosters a culture of continuous learning and improvement, critical elements for success in dynamic and uncertain environments.

Furthermore, the BMC serves as a common language for stakeholders, enabling women entrepreneurs to communicate their business models effectively to investors, partners, and other stakeholders. By aligning interests and fostering collaboration, the BMC enhances women entrepreneurs' ability to access finance, forge strategic partnerships, and leverage networks for growth and expansion.

In the context of fragile economies, where women entrepreneurs face myriad challenges and uncertainties, the BMC emerges as a valuable tool for mitigating risks, optimizing resource allocation, and maximizing impact. By providing women entrepreneurs with a structured framework for business planning and decision-making, the BMC empowers them to overcome barriers, seize opportunities, and drive positive change in their communities.

The Business Model Canvas serves as a linchpin in the journey of empowering women entrepreneurs in fragile economies, offering a roadmap for success and a catalyst for economic empowerment, resilience, and sustainable development.

Through its comprehensive approach to entrepreneurship support, including training, mentorship, and access to resources, the Coachability Foundation plays a pivotal role in empowering women entrepreneurs to leverage the power of the Business Model Canvas and realize their full potential as drivers of economic growth and social change in fragile economies.

As we look to the future, it is imperative that we continue to invest in women entrepreneurs and provide them with the tools, resources, and opportunities they need to thrive. By harnessing the power of the Business Model Canvas and supporting women entrepreneurs through organizations like the Coachability Foundation, we can create a more inclusive, resilient, and prosperous world for all.

B. Call to action: Encouraging stakeholders to support initiatives like Coachability Foundation in their efforts to empower women entrepreneurs.

As we reflect on the critical role of the Business Model Canvas in empowering women entrepreneurs in fragile economies, it is clear that concerted efforts are needed to support and uplift women in their entrepreneurial journey. In this regard, initiatives like the Coachability Foundation play a crucial role in providing women entrepreneurs with the necessary resources, support, and opportunities to succeed. Therefore, I urge stakeholders from all sectors to rally behind initiatives like the Coachability Foundation and support their mission of empowering women entrepreneurs.

There are several ways stakeholders can contribute to this cause:

1. Financial support: Donating funds to organizations like the Coachability Foundation enables them to expand their reach, enhance their programs, and provide more comprehensive support to women entrepreneurs. By investing in women's entrepreneurship, stakeholders can make a tangible impact on economic empowerment and poverty alleviation in fragile economies.

2. Mentorship and guidance: Sharing expertise, insights, and mentorship with women entrepreneurs can make a significant difference in their entrepreneurial journey. Stakeholders with experience in business, finance, marketing, and other relevant fields can volunteer their time and expertise to mentor women entrepreneurs, offering guidance, advice, and support along the way.

3. Advocacy and awareness-raising: Raising awareness about the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in fragile economies and advocating for policies and initiatives that support their empowerment is essential. Stakeholders can use their platforms and networks to amplify the voices of women entrepreneurs, advocate for gender-inclusive policies, and champion initiatives that promote women's economic empowerment.

4. Collaboration and partnerships: Collaborating with organizations like the Coachability Foundation and other stakeholders allows for the pooling of resources, expertise, and networks to better support women entrepreneurs. By forming strategic partnerships and collaborations, stakeholders can leverage collective strengths and maximize their impact on women's entrepreneurship development.

Empowering women entrepreneurs is not only a moral imperative but also a strategic investment in economic growth, social development, and sustainable peace. By supporting initiatives like the Coachability Foundation and actively engaging in efforts to empower women entrepreneurs, stakeholders can contribute to building a more inclusive, resilient, and prosperous world for all.

Let us come together to support and uplift women entrepreneurs, recognizing their potential as catalysts for positive change and drivers of economic empowerment in fragile economies. Together, we can make a difference and create a more equitable and prosperous future for generations to come.

C. Hope for the future: Expressing optimism about the potential for women entrepreneurs to drive positive change and economic growth in fragile economies.

As we look to the future, there is cause for optimism about the transformative potential of women entrepreneurs in fragile economies. Despite the myriad challenges they face, women entrepreneurs demonstrate remarkable resilience, creativity, and determination in overcoming obstacles and driving positive change in their communities.

Women entrepreneurs have the power to catalyze economic growth, create jobs, and foster innovation in fragile economies. Their ventures not only generate income and livelihoods but also contribute to local development, social cohesion, and sustainable peace. By starting and scaling businesses, women entrepreneurs become agents of change, challenging norms, breaking barriers, and reshaping the economic landscape.

Moreover, women entrepreneurs are uniquely positioned to address pressing social and environmental challenges, leveraging their entrepreneurial spirit and empathy to drive solutions that benefit society as a whole. From sustainable agriculture to renewable energy, women-led enterprises are pioneering innovative approaches to address complex issues and create shared value for communities.

The success of women entrepreneurs in fragile economies is not only a testament to their resilience and ingenuity but also a reflection of the transformative power of entrepreneurship to create opportunities, unlock potential, and build brighter futures. By investing in women's entrepreneurship and creating enabling environments for their success, stakeholders can unlock a wealth of untapped talent and creativity, driving inclusive economic growth and sustainable development.

As we chart a course towards a more equitable and prosperous future, let us embrace the potential of women entrepreneurs as drivers of positive change and agents of economic empowerment in fragile economies. By supporting their aspirations, nurturing their talents, and removing barriers to their success, we can unleash a wave of innovation, resilience, and prosperity that benefits us all.

Together, let us cultivate a future where women entrepreneurs thrive, communities prosper, and fragile economies flourish. With determination, collaboration, and a shared commitment to gender equality, we can realize the full potential of women entrepreneurs as architects of a brighter tomorrow.

VII. ANNEXE 1.


The Vital Role of the Business Model Canvas in Entrepreneurial Ventures

Embarking on the journey of entrepreneurship is akin to setting sail on uncharted waters. While the destination may be clear, the path to get there is often filled with uncertainties and challenges. In such a landscape, having a robust framework to navigate through the complexities becomes indispensable. Enter the Business Model Canvas (BMC) – a powerful tool that serves as the entrepreneur's compass, guiding them towards success in their ventures.


Understanding the Business Model Canvas

Developed by Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur, the Business Model Canvas is a visual tool that allows entrepreneurs to conceptualize and articulate the key elements of their business model on a single page. It comprises nine building blocks that cover the essential aspects of any business:

1. Customer Segments: Identifying the specific groups of customers or markets the venture aims to serve.

2. Value Proposition: Articulating the unique value that the product or service offers to the customers.

3. Channels: Describing how the product or service will be delivered to the customers and how they will be reached.

4. Customer Relationships: Defining the type of relationships the venture establishes and maintains with its customers.

5. Revenue Streams: Outlining the sources of revenue generated by the business model.

6. Key Resources: Identifying the critical assets and resources required to deliver the value proposition.

7. Key Activities: Enumerating the essential activities necessary to operate the business.

8. Key Partnerships: Identifying the external partners and alliances crucial to the success of the business.

9. Cost Structure: Listing the expenses incurred in operating the business.

The Importance of Starting with a Business Model Canvas

1. Clarity and Focus: One of the primary benefits of using the Business Model Canvas is that it helps entrepreneurs gain clarity and focus on the critical aspects of their business model. By systematically filling in each block, entrepreneurs can ensure that they have thoroughly considered every component of their venture, thereby minimizing the risk of overlooking crucial elements.

2. Iterative Approach: Entrepreneurship is an iterative process characterized by constant learning and adaptation. The BMC facilitates this process by allowing entrepreneurs to quickly iterate and refine their business model based on feedback and changing market conditions. Since the canvas is designed to be easily editable, entrepreneurs can experiment with different strategies and pivot their business model as needed without investing significant time and resources.

3. Alignment and Communication: The BMC serves as a common language that aligns stakeholders and facilitates communication within the entrepreneurial team. By visually representing the various elements of the business model on a single page, the canvas enables team members to understand how each component contributes to the overall strategy. This alignment is crucial for ensuring that everyone is working towards the same goals and objectives.

4. Risk Mitigation: Starting a new venture inherently involves risk, but the BMC can help entrepreneurs mitigate these risks by identifying potential challenges and uncertainties early on. By systematically analyzing each component of the business model, entrepreneurs can proactively identify areas of weakness and develop contingency plans to address them. This proactive approach to risk management can significantly increase the chances of success for the venture.

5. Resource Allocation: Efficient allocation of resources is essential for the success of any venture, especially in the early stages when resources are limited. The BMC helps entrepreneurs prioritize their resource allocation by highlighting the key activities, resources, and partnerships required to deliver value to customers. By focusing on the most critical aspects of the business model, entrepreneurs can optimize their resource allocation and maximize their chances of success.

The Business Model Canvas is a valuable tool for entrepreneurs embarking on the journey of building new ventures. By providing a structured framework for conceptualizing and articulating the key elements of the business model, the BMC helps entrepreneurs gain clarity, focus, and alignment, while also facilitating iterative learning and risk mitigation. In an ever-changing business landscape, starting with a solid foundation provided by the Business Model Canvas can significantly increase the likelihood of entrepreneurial success.




Sources : 

Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers. John Wiley & Sons.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2019). Women’s Economic Empowerment in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Challenges and Opportunities. UNDP Democratic Republic of the Congo.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2020). Afghanistan Human Development Report 2020: Facing Uncertainty: Challenges and Opportunities for Afghanistan. UNDP Afghanistan.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2020). Yemen: Economic Monitoring Brief. UNDP Yemen.

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). (2021). Yemen Humanitarian Needs Overview.OCHA Yemen.

United Nations Security Council. (2020). Report of the Secretary-General on Conflict-Related Sexual Violence. United Nations Security Council.

UN Women. (2019). Progress of the World’s Women 2019-2020: Families in a Changing World. United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women.

World Bank. (2019). Afghanistan Country Overview. World Bank Group.

World Bank. (2019). Women, Business and the Law 2019: A Decade of Reform. World Bank Group.


Additional information. 

Kabeer, N. (2005). Gender equality and women's empowerment: A critical analysis of the third Millennium Development Goal. Gender & Development, 13(1), 13-24.

Duflo, E. (2012). Women’s empowerment and economic development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(4), 1051-1079.

Chant, S. (2013). The ‘feminisation of poverty’ and the ‘feminisation’ of anti-poverty programmes: Room for revision? Journal of Development Studies, 49(5), 1-17.

Agarwal, B. (1997). “Bargaining” and gender relations: Within and beyond the household. Feminist Economics, 3(1), 1-51.

Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, agency, achievements: Reflections on the measurement of women's empowerment. Development and Change, 30(3), 435-464.

Molyneux, M. (2006). Mothers at the service of the new poverty agenda: Progresa/Oportunidades, Mexico’s conditional transfer programme. Social Policy and Administration, 40(4), 425-449.

Elson, D. (1991). Male bias in macroeconomics: The case of structural adjustment. In M. L. Duflo (Ed.), Gender and Structural Adjustment (pp. 68-93). Routledge.


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